3DNA is a versatile, integrated software system for the analysis, rebuilding, and visualization of three-dimensional nucleic-acid-containing structures. The software is applicable not only to DNA (as the name 3DNA may imply) but also to complicated RNA structures and DNA-protein complexes. In 3DNA, structural analysis and model rebuilding are two sides of the same coin: the description of the structure is rigorous and reversible, thus allowing for its exact reconstruction based on the derived parameters. 3DNA automatically detects all non-canonical base pairs, base triplets and higher-order associations (collectively termed multiplets), and coaxially stacked helices; provides a comprehensive collection of fiber models of regular DNA and RNA helices; generates highly effective schematic presentations that reveal key features of nucleic-acid structures; performs undisturbed base mutations, and have facilities for the analysis of molecular dynamics simulation trajectories.

DSSR is an integrated software tool for dissecting the spatial structure of RNA. It is a representative of what would become the brand new version 3 of 3DNA. DSSR consolidates, refines, and significantly extends the functionality of 3DNA v2.x for RNA structural analysis. Among other features, DSSR denotes base-pairs by common names (e.g., WC, reverse WC, Hoogsteen A+U, reverse Hoogsteen A—U, wobble G—U, sheared G—A), the Saenger classification of 28 H-bonding types, and the Leontis-Westhof nomenclature of 12 basic geometric classes; determines double-helical regions, differentiates stems from helices, and provides a pragmatic definition of coaxial stacking interactions; identifies hairpin loops, bulges, internal loops, and multi-branch (junction) loops; characterizes pseudoknots of arbitrary complexity; outputs RNA secondary structure in commonly used formats (including the dot-bracket notation and connectivity table); identifies A-minor interactions, splayed-apart dinucleotide conformations, base-capping interactions, ribose zippers, G quadruplexes, i-motifs, kissing loops, U-turns, and k-turns etc. By connecting dots in RNA structural bioinformatics, it makes many common tasks simple and advanced applications feasible. DSSR comes with a professional User Manual, and some of its features have been integrated into Jmol and PyMOL. Moreover, the DSSR-Jmol paper, titled DSSR-enhanced visualization of nucleic acid structures in Jmol, has been featured in the cover image of the 2017 Web-server issue of Nucleic Acids Research (NAR).

3DNA version 3 is under active development. The SNAP program has been created from scratch for an integrated characterization of the three-dimensional Structures of Nucleic Acid-Protein complexes. Sharing the same new codebase as DSSR, SNAP works for DNA-protein as well as RNA-protein interactions. Other 3DNA v2.x programs (e.g., fiber, rebuild etc) are gradually distilled into version 3, and a new atomic coordinates-based homology searching tool is also being developed. In the end, 3DNA version 3 will consist of a suite of fully independent (as DSSR and SNAP) yet closely related programs, serving as cornerstones of DNA/RNA structural bioinformatics.

All 3DNA-related questions are welcome and should be directed to the 3DNA Forum. For the benefit of the community at large, I do not provide private support of 3DNA via email or personal message. As a general rule, I strive to provide a prompt and concrete response to each and every question posted on the Forum.

More info · Seeing is believing · Cover image · What’s new · 3DNA Forum · Download

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G-tetrad and pseudo G-tetrads

A G-quadruplex (G4) is composed of stacks of G-tetrad where four guanines form four G•G pairs in a circular, planar fashion. Specifically, the G•G pairs of the G-tetrad (see Fig. 1A below) in G4 are of type M+N according to 3DNA/DSSR: i.e., G+G with the local z-axes of pairing guanines in parallel. Moreover, the G+G pair is uniquely quantified by three base-pair parameters: Shear, Stretch, and Opening with mean values [+1.6 Å, +3.5 Å, –90º] or [–1.6 Å, –3.5 Å, +90º], corresponding to the cWH (cW+M) or cHW (cM+W) types of LW (DSSR) classifications, respectively. This pair is numbered VI in the list of 28 base pairs with two or more H-bonds between base atoms, compiled by Saenger.

In addition to the standard G-tetrad configuration as normally seen in G4 structures, a so-called pseudo-G-tetrad form (see Fig. 1B below) is reported in a 2013 paper titled Duplex-quadruplex motifs in a peculiar structural organization cooperatively contribute to thrombin binding of a DNA aptamer. (PDB entry 4i7y). In a 2017 publication from the same group, Through-bond effects in the ternary complexes of thrombin sandwiched by two DNA aptamers, another form of pseudo-G-tetrad (Fig. 1C) is found in PDB entries 5ew1 and 5ew2.

Clearly, pseudo-G-tetrads are very different from the normal G-tetrad, in terms of base pairing patterns. The G-tetrad is highly regular with the same type of G+G pairs, with the O6 atoms pointing to the middle of the circle. The two pseudo-G-tetrads are less regular, and they differ from each other as well, by flipping G12 from syn (Fig. 1B) to trans (Fig. 1C).

These distinctions stand out even more by filling the up-face (+z-axis outwards) of a guanine base in green while leaving the down-face (+z-axis inwards) empty (G5 in Fig. 1B, G5 and G12 in Fig. 1C). So in G-tetrad (Fig. 1A), all four guanines have their positive z-axis point towards the viewer, corresponding to all four G+G pairs. In one pseudo-G-tetrad (Fig. 1B), G5 has its positive z-axis pointing away from the viewer. So G5–G7 and G5–G16 pairs are of the M–N type. The other type of pseudo-G-tetrad (Fig. 1C) has the opposite orientation for G12. Finally, Fig. 1D shows schematically PDB entry 4i7y where the G-tetrad and a pseudo-G-tetrad are directly stacked, creating a two-layered pseudo-G-quadruplex.

DSSR-derived G-tetrads
Figure 1. (A) G-tetrad, (B-C) two types of pseudo-G-tetrads, and (D) the complex of a DNA-apatmer with thrombin. G-tetrads were automatically identified by DSSR, and the images were created with DSSR and PyMOL.

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Starting DNA or RNA structures

A starting structure of suitable sequence is a prerequisite for many applications, including downstream use in X-ray crystallography, NMR, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Browsing through the literature, I’ve noticed the following tools for such a purpose.

  • The make-na server, a web-based automated tool for making nucleic acid helices powered by NAB. It supports abasic sites via the underscore character (_). According to the help page, “The structure file represents the abasic as the 3-letter code ‘3DR’ in DNA strands and ‘ N’ in RNA strands. These are Protein Data Bank conventions.” An example input is shown below:
    ATACCGATACG_TAGAC
      TG_CTATGCTATCTGT_
  • The NAB itself, and the standalone fd_helix.c program which supports 6 fiber-based models of DNA or RNA.
  • The NUCGEN program from the Bansal group. “The NUCGEN software generates double helical models with the backbone fixed in B-form DNA, but with appropriate modifications in the input data, it can also generate A-form DNA and RNA duplex structures.”
  • 3DNA and its web interface. The ‘rebuild’ program can be used for constructing customized, single or duplex DNA/RNA structures based on a set of base-pair and step (helical) parameters. Moreover, the sugar-phosphate backbone in A-, B- or RNA conformation is allowed. The ‘fiber’ program incorporates a comprehensive list of 56 regular models, based mostly on fiber diffraction data. The list includes single, duplex, triplex, quadruplex, DNA, RNA structures or their hybrids. Notable, the classic Pauling’s triplex model is also available. The 3DNA web 2.0 makes these model-building features readily accessible to a large user base.

Overall, each of the tools listed above has its unique features and may fit better for different applications. It is to the benefit of the user community to have a choice.

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misc tips and tricks

Nowadays, I’ve been used to google searches as a quick way to solve problems. Once in a while, I come across a tip or trick that fixes an issue at hand and then move on. However, I may late on meet a similar problem, but only vaguely remember how I solved it previously. So I’d need to start googling around again. This list is a remedy for such situations, and it will be continuously updated. While the list is created for my own reference, it may also be useful to other viewers of the post, presumably reaching here via google.

  • tail -n +2 to skip the first line (starting from the second line)
  • Ruby one-liners
    • ruby -pi.bak -e "gsub(/SOME_PATTERN/, 'other_text')" files for global replacement of SOME_PATTERN by other_text in files
    • ruby -pe 'gsub(/_/, ".")' globally replace ‘_’ with ‘.’
  • httpie as a replacement of curl and wget
  • byebug and pry for debugging Ruby
  • ack to search for PATTERN in source files, replacing grep
  • fzf for fuzzy file search, replacing find
  • Understanding Shell Script’s idiom: 2>&1 — redirect ‘stderr’ to ‘stdout’ via ’2>&1’ in bash shell.

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Mutations to 3-methyladenine

Recently, a 3DNA user asked on the Forum about how to perform mutations to 3-methyladenine. The user reported that the procedure described in the FAQ entry How can I mutate cytosine to 5-methylcytosine did not work for the case of 3-methyladenine. This ‘limitation’ is easily understandable: the 3DNA mutate_bases program must have knowledge of the target base, 3-methyladenine, to perform the mutation properly. The program works for the most common 5-methylcytosine mutations since the corresponding 5MC file (Atomic_5MC.pdb, in the standard base-reference frame) is already included within the 3DNA distribution. By supplying a similar file for the target base, mutate_bases runs the same for mutations to 5-methylcytosine (or other bases). This blog post outlines the procedure, using 3-methyladenine as an example.

A ligand name search for 5-methylcytosine on the RCSB PDB led to only two matched entries: 2X6F and 3MAG. The ligand id is 3MA. Since 3MAG has a better resolution (1.8 Å) than 2X6F (3.3 Å), its 3MA ligand was extracted from the corresponding PDB file (3MAG.pdb). The atomic coordinates, excluding those for the two hydrogens, are as below. Note that the 3-methyl carbon atom is named CN3.

HETATM 2960  N9  3MA A 600      16.587  14.258  22.170  1.00 49.87           N
HETATM 2961  C4  3MA A 600      17.123  13.100  21.622  1.00 50.46           C
HETATM 2962  N3  3MA A 600      16.877  11.811  22.009  1.00 50.37           N
HETATM 2963  CN3 3MA A 600      15.983  11.363  23.063  1.00 50.41           C
HETATM 2964  C2  3MA A 600      17.590  10.968  21.241  1.00 50.11           C
HETATM 2965  N1  3MA A 600      18.422  11.217  20.224  1.00 49.27           N
HETATM 2966  C6  3MA A 600      18.627  12.484  19.858  1.00 48.99           C
HETATM 2967  N6  3MA A 600      19.426  12.709  18.829  1.00 46.12           N
HETATM 2968  C5  3MA A 600      17.949  13.503  20.593  1.00 49.89           C
HETATM 2969  N7  3MA A 600      17.929  14.900  20.488  1.00 49.84           N
HETATM 2970  C8  3MA A 600      17.113  15.286  21.434  1.00 49.58           C

After running the 3DNA utility program std_base with options -fit -A, the corresponding atomic coordinates of 3MA are transformed to the standard base reference frame of adenine. The file must be named Atomic_3MA.pdb, and it has the following contents:

HETATM    1  N9  3MA A   1      -1.287   4.521   0.006  1.00 49.87           N
HETATM    2  C4  3MA A   1      -1.262   3.133   0.004  1.00 50.46           C
HETATM    3  N3  3MA A   1      -2.337   2.286  -0.009  1.00 50.37           N
HETATM    4  CN3 3MA A   1      -3.743   2.648  -0.047  1.00 50.41           C
HETATM    5  C2  3MA A   1      -1.905   1.013   0.001  1.00 50.11           C
HETATM    6  N1  3MA A   1      -0.662   0.520   0.004  1.00 49.27           N
HETATM    7  C6  3MA A   1       0.366   1.372  -0.003  1.00 48.99           C
HETATM    8  N6  3MA A   1       1.588   0.867  -0.034  1.00 46.12           N
HETATM    9  C5  3MA A   1       0.068   2.768   0.003  1.00 49.89           C
HETATM   10  N7  3MA A   1       0.875   3.914  -0.003  1.00 49.84           N
HETATM   11  C8  3MA A   1       0.026   4.909  -0.003  1.00 49.58           C

Note that in file Atomic_3MA.pdb, (1) the z-coordinates of the base atoms are close to zeros, (2) the ordering of atoms is as in the original ligand of 3MA shown above.

With Atomic_3MA.pdb in place (in the current working directory, or the $X3DNA/config folder), one can perform 3-methyladenine mutations using mutate_bases. For illustration purpose, let’s generate a B-form DNA with base sequence GACATGATTGCC using the 3DNA fiber program:

fiber -seq=GACATGATTGCC fiber-BDNA.pdb

To mutate A7 to 3MA, one needs to run mutate_bases as following:

mutate_bases "chain=A s=7 m=3MA" fiber-BDNA.pdb fiber-BDNA-A7to3MA.pdb

The result of the mutation is shown in the figure below. Note that the backbone has identical geometry as that before the mutation, and the mutated 3MA-T pair has exactly the same parameters (propeller/buckle etc) as the original A-T. These are the two defining features of the 3DNA mutate_bases program.

3DNA 3-methyladenine mutation

Please see the thread mutations to 3-methyladenine on the 3DNA Forum to download files fiber-BDNA.pdb and fiber-BDNA-A7to3MA.pdb.

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Over 10K nucleic-acid-containing structures in the PDB

When visiting the RCSB PDB website today, I am please to notice that the PDB now contains “10015 Nucleic Acid Containing Structures”. Based on “Macromolecule Type” in “Advanced Search” of the RCSB PDB website, I observed the following information:

  • The number of DNA-containing structures is 6,384 (reported in 2,997 papers), and the corresponding number for RNA-containing structures is 3,861 (associated with 2,012 publications).
  • There are 4,570 structures containing both DNA and protein (potentially forming DNA-protein complexes), and 2,478 RNA-protein complexes.
  • The smallest nucleic-acid-containg structures have only two nucleotides (e.g., 3rec), and largest ones are the ribosomes (and virus particles).
  • The earliest released DNA structure from the PDB is 1zna (on March 18, 1981), a Z-DNA tetramer. The earliest RNA structure released is 4tna (on April 12, 1978), a refined structure of the yeast phenylalanine transfer RNA.

This landmark achievement is made possible by the world-wide scientific community through decades of efforts solving DNA/RNA 3D structures via experimental approaches (mainly solution NMR, x-ray crystal, and cryo-EM). These over 10K nucleic acid structures present both challenges and opportunities for the field of structural bioinformatics, especially for intricate RNA molecules. DSSR is an integrated software tool for dissecting the spatial structure of RNA. It is my effort in addressing the challenging issues for the analysis/annotation and visualization of RNA structures.

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One base forming two Watson-Crick pairs?

It is textbook knowledge that the Watson-Crick (WC) pairs are specific, forming only between A and T/U (A–T/U or T/U–A) or G and C (G–C or C–G). Furthermore, an A only forms one WC pair with a T, so is G vs. C. The widely used dot-bracket-notation (DBN) of DNA/RNA secondary structure depends crucially on this feature of specificity and uniqueness, by using matched parentheses to represent WC pairs, such as ((....)) for a GCGA (GNRA-type) tetra-loop of sequence GCGCGAGC.

The reality is more complicated, even for what’s presumably to be a ‘simple’ question of deriving RNA secondary structure from 3D coordinates in PDB. One subtlety is related to the ambiguity of atomic coordinates that renders one base apparently forming two WC pairs with two other complementary bases. As always, the case can be best illustrated with a concrete example. The image shown below is taken from PDB entry 1qp5 where C20 (on chain B) forms two WC pairs, each with G4 and G5 (on chain A) respectively.

C forming two WC G-C pairs in PDB entry 1qp5

Clearly, taking both as valid WC G–C pairs would make the resultant DBN illegitimate. DSSR resolves such discrepancies by taking structural context into consideration to ensure that one base can only have a WC pair with another base. Here the G5–C20 WC pair is retained whilst the G4–C20 WC is removed.

This issue, one base can form two WC pairs as derived from the PDB, has been noticed for a long while. Two examples from literature are shown below:

The crystal structure data files were downloaded from the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) Protein Data Bank (Berman et al. 2000). For each crystal structure, the set of canonical base pairs was extracted by selecting all Watson–Crick and standard G-U wobble pairs found by RNAview (Yang et al. 2003). Occasional conflicts in this list, where RNAview annotates two bases, x and y, as a standard base pair and also y and z as another conflicting base pair, were removed manually by visual inspection of the crystal structure in the program PyMOL (http://pymol.sourceforge.net/). The helix-extension data set was created by taking the canonical pairs and adding all additional base–base interactions identified by RNAview (excluding stacked bases and tertiary interactions) for which the direct neighbor was already in the collection. This means each base pair (i,j) was added if both i and j were still unpaired and if either (i + 1, j – 1) or (i –1, j + 1) were already in the set.

… From these complexes, we retrieved all RNA chains also marked as non-redundant by RNA3DHub. Each chain was annotated by FR3D. Because FR3D cannot analyze modified nucleotides or those with missing atoms, our present method does not include them either. If several models exist for a same chain, the first one only was considered. For the rest of this paper, the base pairs extracted from the FR3D annotations are those defined in the Leontis–Westhof geometric classification (24).

For each chain a secondary structure without pseudoknots was deduced from the annotated interactions, as follows. First all canonical Watson–Crick and wobble base pairs (i.e. A-U, G-C and G-U) were identified. Then, since many structures are naturally pseudoknotted, we used the K2N (25) implementation in the PyCogent (26) Python module to remove pseudoknots. Problems arise when a nucleotide is involved in several Watson–Crick base pairs (which is geometrically not feasible), probably due to an error of the automatic annotation. Those discrepancies were removed with a ad hoc algorithm such that if a nucleotide is involved in several Watson–Crick base pairs, we remove the base pair which belongs to the shortest helix.

By design, DSSR takes care of these ‘little details’, among other handy features (such as handling modified nucleotides and removing pseudoknots). By providing a robust infrastructure and comprehensive framework, DSSR allows users to focus on their research topics. If you have experience with other tools, such as RNAView and FR3D cited above, give DSSR a try: it may fit your needs better.

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DNA conformational changes may play an active role in viral genome packaging

An article titled Simulations and electrostatic analysis suggest an active role for DNA conformational changes during genome packaging by bacteriophages has recently been published in bioRxiv. I was honored to have the opportunity collaborating with fellow researchers from University of Pennsylvania and Thomas Jefferson University in this significant piece of work.

Here is the abstract. Please download the PDF version to know more.

Motors that move DNA, or that move along DNA, play essential roles in DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and chromosome segregation. The mechanisms by which these DNA translocases operate remain largely unknown. Some double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses use an ATP-dependent motor to drive DNA into preformed capsids. These include several human pathogens, as well as dsDNA bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria). We previously proposed that DNA is not a passive substrate of bacteriophage packaging motors but is, instead, an active component of the machinery. Computational studies on dsDNA in the channel of viral portal proteins reported here reveal DNA conformational changes consistent with that hypothesis. dsDNA becomes longer (“stretched”) in regions of high negative electrostatic potential, and shorter (“scrunched”) in regions of high positive potential. These results suggest a mechanism that couples the energy released by ATP hydrolysis to DNA translocation: The chemical cycle of ATP binding, hydrolysis and product release drives a cycle of protein conformational changes. This produces changes in the electrostatic potential in the channel through the portal, and these drive cyclic changes in the length of dsDNA. The DNA motions are captured by a coordinated protein-DNA grip-and-release cycle to produce DNA translocation. In short, the ATPase, portal and dsDNA work synergistically to promote genome packaging.

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Handling of abasic sites in DSSR

An abasic site is a location in DNA or RNA where a purine or pyrimidine base is missing. It is also termed an AP site (i.e., apurinic/apyrimidinic site) in biochemistry and molecular genetics. The abasic site can be formed either spontaneously (e.g., depurination) or due to DNA damage (occurring as intermediates in base excision repair). According to Wikipedia, “It has been estimated that under physiological conditions 10,000 apurinic sites and 500 apyrimidinic may be generated in a cell daily.”

In DSSR and 3DNA v2.x, nucleotides are recognized using standard atom names and base planarity. Thus, abasic sites are not taken as nucleotides (by default), simply because they do not have base atoms. DSSR introduced the --abasic option to account for abasic sites, a feature useful for detecting loops with backbone connectivity.

For example, by default, DSSR identifies one internal loop (no. 1 in the list below) in PDB entry 1l2c. With the --abasic option, two internal loops (including the one with the abasic site C.HPD18, no. 2) are detected.

List of 2 internal loops
   1 symmetric internal loop: nts=6; [1,1]; linked by [#-1,#1]
     summary: [2] 1 1 [B.1 C.24 B.3 C.22] 1 4
     nts=6 GTATAC B.DG1,B.DT2,B.DA3,C.DT22,C.DA23,C.DC24
       nts=1 T B.DT2
       nts=1 A C.DA23
   2 symmetric internal loop: nts=6; [1,1]; linked by [#1,#2]
     summary: [2] 1 1 [B.6 C.19 B.8 C.17] 4 5
     nts=6 CTTA?G B.DC6,B.DT7,B.DT8,C.DA17,C.HPD18,C.DG19
       nts=1 T B.DT7
       nts=1 ? C.HPD18

Note that C.HPD18 in 1l2c is a non-standard residue, as shown in the HETATM records below. Since the identity of C.HPD18 cannot be deduced from the atomic records, its one-letter code is designated as ?.

HETATM  346  P   HPD C  18     -14.637  52.299  29.949  1.00 49.12           P
HETATM  347  O5' HPD C  18     -14.658  52.173  28.359  1.00 48.28           O
HETATM  348  O1P HPD C  18     -15.167  51.040  30.537  1.00 49.35           O
HETATM  349  O2P HPD C  18     -13.303  52.798  30.369  1.00 46.43           O
HETATM  350  C5' HPD C  18     -15.703  51.469  27.687  1.00 45.70           C
HETATM  351  O4' HPD C  18     -16.364  50.501  25.561  1.00 44.15           O
HETATM  352  O3' HPD C  18     -13.990  51.738  24.335  1.00 45.75           O
HETATM  353  C1' HPD C  18     -16.105  54.187  25.684  1.00 52.47           C
HETATM  354  O1' HPD C  18     -17.309  54.085  26.496  1.00 56.16           O
HETATM  355  C3' HPD C  18     -14.756  52.250  25.426  1.00 46.23           C
HETATM  356  C4' HPD C  18     -15.263  51.093  26.291  1.00 45.72           C
HETATM  357  C2' HPD C  18     -16.030  52.889  24.898  1.00 49.05           C

In contrast, the R.U-8 in PDB entry 4ifd is a standard U, and is properly labeled by DSSR.

ATOM  26418  P     U R  -8     139.362  21.962 129.430  1.00208.29           P
ATOM  26419  OP1   U R  -8     140.062  20.821 130.074  1.00207.30           O
ATOM  26420  OP2   U R  -8     140.113  23.208 129.129  1.00208.44           O1+
ATOM  26421  O5'   U R  -8     138.712  21.439 128.071  1.00157.60           O
ATOM  26422  C5'   U R  -8     139.507  20.790 127.087  1.00155.47           C
ATOM  26423  C4'   U R  -8     138.843  20.804 125.731  1.00152.27           C
ATOM  26424  O4'   U R  -8     138.538  22.172 125.352  1.00149.29           O
ATOM  26425  C3'   U R  -8     139.677  20.275 124.572  1.00152.70           C
ATOM  26426  O3'   U R  -8     139.670  18.859 124.478  1.00155.04           O
ATOM  26427  C2'   U R  -8     139.053  20.969 123.369  1.00150.26           C
ATOM  26428  O2'   U R  -8     137.849  20.322 122.984  1.00146.83           O
ATOM  26429  C1'   U R  -8     138.700  22.334 123.958  1.00147.35           C

This is yet another little detail that DSSR takes care of. It is the close consideration to many such subtle points that makes DSSR different. Overall, DSSR represents my view of what a scientific software program could be (or should be).

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Weird PDB entries

Recently, while analyzing a representative set of RNA structures from the PDB, I came across three weird entries. They are documented below, primarily for my own record.

  • 5els — “Structure of the KH domain of T-STAR in complex with AAAUAA RNA”. There are two alternative conformations for the six-nt AAAUAA RNA component, labeled A and B, respectively. Normally, the A/B alternative coordinates for each atom are put directly next to each other, and assigned the same chain id, as in 1msy for the phosphate group of G2669 on chain A. In 5els, however, the two alternative conformations (A/B) are separated into two chains: chain H for A, and chain I for B.
  • 1vql — “The structure of the transition state analogue ‘DCSN’ bound to the large ribosomal subunit of Haloarcula marismortui”. The three-nt fragment DA179—C180—C181 on chain 4 is in the 3’—>5’ direction.
  • 4r3i — “The crystal structure of m(6)A RNA with the YTHDC1 YTH domain”. The mmCIF file has a model number of 0, instead of 1 (as in other cases I am aware of).

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Thank you for printing this article from http://home.x3dna.org/. Please do not forget to visit back for more 3DNA-related information. — Xiang-Jun Lu